Comprehension Exercise – Creative Writing – 157

Comprehension Exercise

Creative Writing – 157

Study the BBC article and answer the comprehension questions underneath

The BBC Article

The secrets shared by Afghan women

https://www.bbc.com/news/world-63638876

“My pen is the wing of a bird; it will tell you those thoughts we are not allowed to think, those dreams we are not allowed to dream.”

At times, voices of Afghan women rise from the streets of Kabul and other cities in small, loud, protests. Often, they ring out in speeches by women now far away, outside Afghanistan. But mostly, their thoughts are only expressed quietly, in safe places. Or they fester in their heads as they try to reconcile their lives with the increasingly rigid rules of the Taliban government. They restrict what women wear, where they work, what they can do, or not, with their lives.

In the months before the Taliban returned, in August 2021, 18 Afghan women writers wrote fictional stories, drawn from real lives, and published early this year in the book, My Pen is the Wing of a Bird. Many Afghan women felt let down and left alone by the international community. But these writers used their pens and phones to comfort each other and to reflect on issues now faced by millions of women and girls. Here, two writers in Kabul, with pen names Paranda and Sadaf, shared their thoughts written in secret.

‘Is a pink scarf a sin?’

“Today I woke up with determination. When I chose my clothes, I decided to wear a pink headscarf to fight with the black headscarf I wear daily… is it a sin to wear a pink headscarf?”

Paranda prefers to wear pink, to feel feminine. But what women choose to put on is now a battleground. Strict Taliban edicts on modesty are enforced, often forcefully. In this traditional society, Afghan women aren’t fighting against head-coverings – some just want their right to choose. You see it on the streets, in public spaces. A pink scarf. A sparkling trim. A little light in the dark.

‘We cannot go back’

“Going backwards is not easy. Going forward is also a big hassle, should I be hopeful or not? We cannot go back,” writes poet Hafizullah Hamim.

Afghan women have been leading the charge in rare public protests. Small brave crowds have taken to the streets in Kabul and other cities brandishing banners calling for “bread, work, freedom.” They’ve been forcibly dispersed, and detained. Some have disappeared in detention. Across the border, in Iran, it’s also the women leading calls for change with cries of “women, life, freedom” and a demand to end mandatory hijab. For Afghans, it’s the right of women to work, for girls to be educated.

‘Fear turns to anger’

”The Taliban guard stopped our office car, he pointed at me… my heart beat faster, my body shook. It felt as if a wind was blowing across me… when our car moved away, it felt like the wind moved in another direction. My fear turned to anger.

‘Excitement of ice cream’

“The excitement of eating ice cream as a child is equal to the excitement of travelling to space as an adult.”

You often see queues at ice cream kiosks, crowds of women and children in cafes. These have become places to escape for a rare treat, a retreat. Now even public parks and women-only gyms and baths are off limits, “because women don’t observe hijab”, the strict dress code. All this means small spaces could get smaller still.

‘Engaged at 13’

“The public baths owner’s daughter has been engaged. It’s amazing. She’s only 13. Her mother says the Taliban will never re-open schools, let her go to her home of luck… it seems that little girl is me… I was in despair the first time the Taliban arrived. I also accepted a forced marriage… the wounds still haven’t healed… but I got up from the ashes and stood up.”

It’s repression on repeat. Afghan women recall, painfully, 1990s Taliban rule which also ended their education. Paranda, like many others, seized opportunities when the regime was toppled in 2001 – like going to school or getting divorced. A new generation of schoolgirls has grown up with even bigger dreams. Their pain is profound as their schools stay shut.

‘Words men use against women’

Image caption,

Kabul evening scene

“I had used social media but now I have locked my lips. I’m upset with my society, the naked words men use against women. I believe the roots of Afghan women’s problems are not the governments which change and bring new rules… it is the evil thoughts of men toward women.”

Afghan regimes come and go; patriarchy stays put. Afghan women have long lived with limits set by men. But advances of recent years are reversing – with what the UN describes as “staggering repression”. It has a knock-on effect – reinforcing conservative family norms which keep women and girls under wraps.

‘Believe a good country will come’

Image caption,

Paranda writing

“I must write about what is happening. There are so few media now… I believe that, someday, Afghanistan will be a very good country for women and girls. It will take time. But it will happen.”

Paranda is a pen name – it means bird. Women like her, especially educated women in the cities, refuse to be caged. Many have fled. Many still hope to. Small crowds bravely protest. Even in remote corners of the country, I’ve met illiterate women seething inside about their prison-like life.

‘Write to heal’

Image caption,

Paranda’s diary

“Write! Why are you scared? Who you are afraid of? … Maybe your writing can heal someone’s soul… Your pen becomes the support of someone’s broken arms and brings a little hope to some hopeless people,” writes Sadaf.

A writer’s life anywhere can be fraught with doubt and fear. For Afghan women, it is especially so – to find safe quiet corners to write, to forge a sense of self and purpose. Being published in “My Pen is the Wing of a Bird” gave new life to their words.

‘I am the breadwinner’

Image caption,

A young girl chops wood with her family in Nuristan province

“My belief tells me I should not worry about money as God may have something better for me. But God knows why I am worried. We are a family of 10, and I am the only breadwinner. I did not earn much better in the last Republic and it isn’t good in this Islamic Emirate.”

Women’s work hasn’t been wiped away. Some female doctors, nurses, teachers, policewomen are still in their jobs, mainly working with women and girls. Some businesswomen are still in business – but there’s a crushing economic crisis. And doors have been slammed shut for women in most government ministries. With girls’ high schools closed, the link between women and work is being severed.

‘You are strong’

Image caption,

Kandahar scene

“I said, ‘No, no! I cannot commit suicide.’ I comforted myself, saying, ‘Maybe you don’t want to live. Still, your suicide will affect many other lives. Please be kind to them, you are strong, everything will be fine, you can make it. This too shall pass.'”

It’s a whisper you hear everywhere. Suicide attempts – especially among young women – are reported to be on the rise, but it’s hard to confirm. Families keep their secrets. Public hospitals are told to hide any proof. A UN agency tells me when they meet women in the provinces, this issue comes up. Forced marriages of young girls blocked from school is cited as a cause.

‘When will this end?’

Image caption,

Paranda holds the negative of a photo taken in Afghanistan in the 1970s

“How can we be normal and not become crazy? How much pain can we tolerate? Finally, my heart accepts that this land has faced everything inhumane and cruel. But when will this end?”

More than one generation now has only known war – it’s been more than four decades. The country lurches from one conflict to the next. Afghans keep daring to dream the next chapter will be better than the last. It’s a story which never seems to end.

‘Sparkles of hope’

Image caption,

A group of women walk past a restaurant in Kabul

“I sprinkle sparkles of hope on the surface of my heart… There is a fire within me. There is a spirit within me telling me to fight. I have to hope the law of nature will send its orders in these dark days to change this darkness to a set of lights.”

Afghans often say hope is the last thing to die. In recent years, before the Taliban took over, when everyday violence intensified, some said hope was killed too. But people who have lived through so much still hold fast to whatever hope still lives.

Comprehension questions and answers

2. Why are the women in Afghanistan so restless presently? What troubles them?
Answer – The Taliban practice and enforce a very rigid and ultra-orthodox system of Islam that relegates women to indoor roles only. They are required to marry, give birth to children, rear them, and serve the needs of their men folk. They are denied all outdoor roles like going to schools, colleges, taking up jobs in offices, and even going out without a male escort such as their fathers, brothers, or sons. Such a primitive patriarchal system stifles women’s basic human rights, and blights their creativity. A woman who defies the edicts is given stern punishments such as stoning to death in full public view, caning them to inflict maximum pain etc. In such a suffocating social environment, women crave for dignity, justice and freedom. Since these ideas are anathema to the Taliban, women stay indoors against their will making them worse than caged birds. This is the reason why Afghan women today feel so restless.

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[Words introduced – Relegate, Rear, Primitive, Patriarchal, Blights, Edict, Crave, Anathema]

3. How do they give vent to (express) their frustration and anguish?
Answer – The women express their anguish in many covert and overt manners. At times, they go to the streets holding placards and shouting slogans against the oppression they face, but such open show of resentment invites the wrath of the police who unleash harsh force against the hapless women. Other women blessed with some literary gifts write poems of protest. Their exasperation and burning desire for freedom is portrayed in these compositions. The pain-filled writings find worldwide audience, thanks to the Internet.

[Words introduced – Anguish, Covert, Overt, Resentment, Wrath, Unleash, Hapless, Exasperation, Portrayed,]

4. Why is Paranda keen on wearing a pink scarf?

Answer – Paranda has a rebellious spirit. She wants to assert her right to choose the way she dresses, although it’s a terribly fraught idea to do so under the Taliban’s watchful eyes. Wearing a pink scarf in place of the mandated black scarf is deemed to be a show of defiance, but Paranda is ready to face the consequences.

[Words introduced – Rebellious, Assert, Fraught, Mandated, Deemed, Defiance]

5. What does poet Hafizulah Hakim mean by “Going backwards is not easy. Going forward is also a big hassle, should I be hopeful or not? We cannot go back.”

Answer – Obeying the Taliban rules of moral conduct would result in losing many of the basic freedoms allowed to women in civilized societies. Even Afghan men are also subjected to impractical limitations on their living style. When the U.S. forces were there in the country, they fostered women’s liberty and emancipation by giving them access to education, jobs, athletics, and even policing roles. The men were also allowed to have drinks, see films, and enjoy music. With the Taliban at the helm, all such freedoms for men and women are taken away.
This is the reason why the poet Hafizulah Hakim feels cultural regression is not easy, and adapting to modernity can be risky. But, he remains an optimist because rolling back freedom on the point of a gun can’t last for long.

[Words introduced – Foster, Emancipation, At the helm, Regression, Modernity, Roll back, On the point of a gun,]

6. How are the women in Afghanistan and Iran protesting against the severe restrictions imposed on their personal freedom?

Answer – Iran’s powerful clerics who call the shots in the country want to make sure the women cover their heads in black scarves while in public. The women have chosen to defy the edict, especially after the death in police custody of Mahasa Amini, the 22-yer-old Kurdish woman. The stridency of their street protests has rattled the government.

In Afghanistan, the underlying reasons for women’s anger are the same – the denial of basic freedoms that includes enforcing a dress code. However, the Taliban have so far managed to subdue the protests by using brutal oppression against the dissenters.

[Edict, Stridency, Underlying, Dissenter, Subdue, Stridency, Rattled]

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