Question and Answers for the chapter ‘Festivals of North East India‘ from BSE Odisha Class 10 Textbook:
1. What is North East India? Which states are called the land of seven sisters?
Ans. India is a large country with 29 states and 7 union territories. The North Eastern states derive their names primarily because of geographical and administrative reasons. However, their strikingly unique culture and lifestyle qualify them to be grouped together as ‘North Eastern’ states. This area contains 8 states. They are Assam, Manipur , Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh, Sikkim, Nagaland, Tripura and Mizoram. Due to geographical contiguity, states such as Arunachal Pradesh, Sikkim, Tripura, Mizoram, Manipur, Nagaland, Assam are called the land of seven sisters.
2. Why Sikkim is not included in the land of seven sisters?
Ans. Sikkim is not geographically contiguous with the ‘Seven Sisters’ of the north east region. Siliguri corridor separates the land of seven sisters and Sikkim. Being a predominantly Buddhist country, Sikkim’s culture bears unmistakable signs of Buddhist traditions. Nevertheless, the seven sister states affectionately accept Sikim as their youngest brother.
3. What are the two important parts of celebrating their festivals?
Ans. Festivals generally have two undertones – providing entertainment and fostering unity. People of different religions and tribes celebrate their unique festivals with boundless joy and enthusiasm. Singing traditional songs and rhythmic dancing constitute the main part of these celebrations. Most of their festivals are rooted to agriculture.
4.Bihu festivals are three kinds. What are they based on? when they are observed?
Ans. The most important festival of Assam is Bihu. It is divided in three parts. Rangoli Bihu also known as known as Bohag Bihu is one among the three. It is the celebrated to mark the onset of the spring season and the beginning of the sowing season. The second Bihu is Kongali Bihu also known as Kaati Bihu. It is celebrated in the mid-October when the fields are lush green but the barns are empty. The third and last one is Bhogali Bihu, alternatively known as Magh Bihu. It is observed in mid-January. It is a thanks-giving festival to God after the harvest.
5.When and how Rongali Bihu is celebrated?
Ans. Rongali Bihu is the first part of Bihu festival of Assam. It is otherwise known as Bohag Bihu. Assamese celebrate this festival at the onset of spring season and starting of the sowing season. It is celebrated in the mid-April. They light the lamps and pray to god for a good harvest.
6. When and how Magh Bihu is celebrated?
Ans. Bhogali Bihu is otherwise known as Magh Bihu. It is a thanks giving festival of Assam. It is observed in mid-January. During this time, the fields are empty but the barns are full. The traditional song and musical instruments like Dhol, pepa,bamboo clapper, cymbal etc. are played adding to the flavour of the festival. Men and women dance together wearing their traditional attires.
7. What is the most favourite dance of Assam? How do they perform it?
Ans. Bihu is the foremost popular dance of Assam. Bihu festival is incomplete without folk songs and traditional dances. The Assamese wear their traditional attire and perform the dance with brisk steps and hand movement. The musical instruments like pepa, cymbals, bamboo clapper, dhol, etc. add flavour to the songs and dance. This kind of dances are handed down from one generation to another generation.
8. Where is Arunachal Pradesh? Name three festivals of this state?
Ans. Arunachal Pradesh lies to the northern-most region of the Himalaya. The picturesque state with lush green paddy fields and pine clad mountains proves to be a feast to the visitor. The people of Arunachal Pradesh celebrate three festivals named Losar, Mopin, and Ziro. Losar is the new year festival and ziro is the harvesting festival observed by the Galo tribe and Ziro is the music festival of Arunachal Pradesh in which thirty indie bands across the world perform music.
9. What is the harvest festival in Arunachal Pradesh? What do people pray on this occasion?
Ans. Mopin is the harvest festival of Arunachal Pradesh. People of Galo tribe invoke the blessings of their Goddess Mopin Ane to give them a bumper harvest and bring peace and prosperity for the whole mankind by driving away the evil spirit. During the festival they pray to their goddess to drive away the evil spirits. The festivities lasts for a few days, and people dance their indigenous Mopir dance with gusto.
10. What is the music festival of Arunachal pradesh? How is it performed?
Ans. The eco-friendly music festival of Arunachal Pradesh is held in the Zero valley of Arunabchal Pradesh. The festival draws its name from the valley. It is an outdoor festival in which thirty indebands of music across the world congregate to perform music and dance from across the north east India, display their performance and people from different regions turn up to enjoy music and dance.
11. Which festival is observed as the New Year festival in Manipur? What do people do in this festival?
Ans. Cheiraoba is the new year festival observed in Manipur. It is observed in the month of April. In this festival people clean their houses and spruce up the surroundings. Homes get new lively looks. In this festival, they climb to the nearest hill top, because they believe that they can flourish and become more prosperous through this ritual.
12. What is the spring festival of Mizoram? How do they celebrate it?
Ans. The spring festival of Mizoram is Chapcharkut. Gaiety and community cohesion are the hallmarks of this festival. Wearing their traditional attires and headgears, the local folks dance and sing in their typically traditional style. Musical instruments like cymbals, drums, and gongs are used in this festival.
13. Which festival is called hundred drums festival? and how is it observed?
Ans. Wangala is called the hundred-drum festival celebrated in Meghalaya. It is celebrated by the Garo tribes. In this festival, hundred drums are beaten together. They celebrated this festival in the month of November. People get in their traditional attires and stand in two parallel lines. At the time when the drums are beaten, the two lines move together in a rhythmic manner.
14. Which festival is named after a bird and how is it observed?
Ans. The Hornbill is the most admired bird in Nagaland. The Hornbill festival , named after this bird, is observed with great enthusiasm and fervor. It is celebrated for ten days. A flurry of different programmes held during the celebrations hold the audience spellbound. Men clad in full warrior costumes show off their hunting and warring skills. A total of about 16 tribes participate in it.
15. Which festival is celebrated in the sowing season in Nagaland? How is it celebrated?
Ans. Moastu is the festival celebrated in the villages of Nagaland after the sowing season. Men dressed in the colorful clothes and headgear decorated with feathers and wild boar tusk take part in it. They dance to the traditional music. Through the dance they display their hunting and warring skills.
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