Ballard of the Landlord by Langston Hughes
A word about the author.. Langston Hughes (James Mercer Langston Hughes) (1901 -1967) was an African American writer who railed against the pervasive discrimination against fellow citizens of his colour. In the years he lived, America experienced tumultuous changes in racial relations. With great churning of conscience, the Whites began to give equal status to their black brethren. This short poem portrays the intolerance and arrogance of a white landlord against his black tenant. The latter is sent to jail for the flimsiest of the reasons. The police and the judiciary were arrayed against the black people in the most reprehensible way.
Questions for discussion …
Q1. .. What are the tenant’s ………..
The black tenant complains about the leaking roof, and the rickety steps. Both need immediate repairs.
Q2. “The steps is broken,” .. Grammatically, ‘are’ is required to be inserted for ‘is’. The author has knowingly inserted this error to symbolize the poor education of his black community members. This blights their English.
Q3. “Well, that’s ten……. It means that the tenant is unwilling to clear the rent arrears if the repairs are not done.
Q4. Does the tenant … The tenant has not unleashed any sort of physical violence against the landlord.
Q5. “He is trying to ….. This is the allegation of the white landlord. Quite predictably, the police take the black tenant to custody for breaking the law, threatening the government, and create all round confusion. The police don’t bother even to do any verification or questioning.
Q6. Do you think .. The tenant just made a legitimate request for repair of the house. He did nothing to warrant such a heavy-handed and one-sided reaction from the police.
Q7. What is the attitude of …… The author mocks the law and order apparatus of the state for being so overly racist and unjust. He describes how the black people are always in the receiving end when it comes to their interaction with the whites.
Q8. Why is the last .. These are the screaming headlines of the local newspaper. It shows how the black citizens are generally perceived to be lawless, violent, and unruly.
Q9. In this poem, the author .. ‘member’, Way last week, steps is broken, Well, that’s Ten Bucks more’n I’ll pay you, gonna,
Q10. Who do you … Obviously, I will sympathize with the black tenant. He is wronged. He feels the iron fist of law for no fault of his. Most tragically, he is not given a fair chance to defend himself.